The method behind building muscle is simple at its core: train, eat, sleep, and grow. However, the science behind growth is one of the most sought-after topics on the Internet, with dozens and dozens of differing methods to help aspiring lifters get the gains they want.

Some coaches may go as far as withholding information like it’s some voodoo secret, but I’m not that kind of coach. I’m here to cut the bullshit, help you fix whatever you may be doing wrong, and help you grow like a pro.

As a former skinny lad, I know the ups and downs of the muscle-building process all too well. I’ve been there and done that. Fast-forward years later, and I’ve helped dozens of guys pack on muscle. They initially come to me with preconceived notions on the best way to build muscle—high volume, low volume, proper splits, specific set and rep schemes, and on and on. I help them go back to the basics to explore what makes muscle grow.

Mechanisms of Hypertrophy

The confusion of beginner lifters lies in an elementary understanding of the fundamentals. Muscle growth comes from specific stimuli. As mentioned in Brad Schoenfeld’s review of “The Mechanisms of Muscular Hypertrophy and Their Application to Resistance Training,” the three most important mechanisms for hypertrophy are:
– Metabolic stress
– Mechanical tensio
– Muscular damage

The three together exert the greatest stimuli for muscle growth. Now let’s discuss what each means for training in the real world.

Metabolic Stress

Engorged muscles play an important role in hypertrophy. If you’ve ever experienced a sleeve-splitting pump after the end of an arms workout, you’ve experienced metabolic stress. When you work out hard to achieve a pump, you build up lactate, hydrogen ions, creatinine, and other metabolites, but you also prevent blood from escaping. This metabolic stress in the muscle signals adaptation.

Mechanical Tension

Mechanical tension is achieved by using a substantial load and performing exercises through a full range of motion for a certain amount of time. The time you spend under tension creates mechanical tension in the muscles; ergo, the more significant the time, the more significant the mechanical tension. But, tension alone won’t signal maximum muscle growth.

Tension, in addition to a full range of motion, induces a substantial hypertrophic response. In other words, maximal muscular development comes from a foundation of strength. Greater strength begets greater mechanical tension across all exercises. It sounds kind of circular, but the basic gist of it is that you should lift heavy at a relatively slow tempo through a full range of motion to promote muscle growth.

Muscular Damage

It’s not uncommon to hobble out of bed the day after demolishing a workout that, in turn, demolishes your muscles. This soreness might feel like the end of the world, but it’s also indicative of muscular damage. Luckily, soreness isn’t for naught; that damage to muscle tissue creates a temporary inflammatory response and releases the necessary signals for muscle growth.

It’s important to note that more damage instigates a great need for repair and nutrient delivery to the source of damage. This reversal of damage promotes muscle fibers to recover and come back stronger in order to respond to future stimuli. Some soreness is OK, but excessive damage may interfere with training frequency to the detriment of maximal hypertrophy.

In order to achieve the most muscular damage, focus on exercises that your body is not accustomed to, intentionally slowing down eccentric phases, and using full range of motion on multi-joint movements

Three Is Better Than One

The interplay between all three of these mechanisms is crucial to helping you fill out your “smedium” T-shirt collection. No mechanism alone provides the necessary stimulus for growth—they must all be trained for maximal gains. For example, the Romanian deadlift is a high-tension exercise which—when performed with significant load, reps, or both—will elicit all three mechanisms of hypertrophy.

In the immortal words of Ronnie Coleman, “Everybody wants to be a bodybuilder, but don’t nobody want to lift no heavy-ass weights.” To grow, you should find something really heavy and pick it up with enough frequency and duration to create mechanical tension, incur muscular damage, and boost metabolic stress.

Week 1
Primary exercises 4 sets of 6 reps; Power clean and deadlift 3 sets of 3 reps, each
Week 2
Primary exercises 5 sets of 5 reps; Power clean and deadlift 3 sets of 2 reps, each
Week 3
Primary exercises 8 sets of 3 reps; Power clean and deadlift 4 sets of 2 reps, each
Week 4
Primary exercises 4 sets of 6 reps; Power clean and deadlift 3 sets of 3 reps, each
Week 5
Primary exercises 5 sets of 5 reps; Power clean and deadlift 3 sets of 2 reps, each
Week 6
Primary exercises 8 sets of 3 reps; Power clean and deadlift 4 sets of 2 reps, each
Week 7: De-load; drop the weight!
Primary exercises 3 sets of 8 reps; Power clean and deadlift 2 sets of 5 reps, each

I’d also like to note that upper back, anti-flexion, and rotation exercises primarily focus on preventing injuries, and thus, are not calculated into the total volume. In my sample program, they are superset with compound exercises and should be low-intensity

Let’s Grow

By now, you should have it drilled into your head that maximum muscular development requires sufficient mechanical tension, metabolic stress, and muscular damage. Stick with multi-joint exercises, such as presses, rows, squats, and deadlifts to build the most mass.

Massive-Triceps

At the same time, sprinkle in isolation exercises to build stability and improve weak points. Keep rest periods between 1-2 minutes—slightly more for heavy sets and slightly less for moderate and high-rep sets.
Training with these concepts in mind will get you on your way to six-pack glory and the V-neck T-shirt wardrobe you’ve always wanted!